IoT and IIoT systems are convergence of large amount of end points & applications from variety of sources with various models of communication involved into it. The complexity increases with -
Main issues organizations facing are related to Security, Privacy and Regulations. These issues are the effect of human negligence or errors in configuration, not covering security aspects during design & development, Insufficient technical & process controls for data security, low adherence to standards & regulations and presence of inherent vulnerabilities in the legacy systems & devices. These weaknesses give hackers enough ammunition to exploit the vulnerabilities.
Majority of the times the aim of cyber attacks is to take control of the system, steal information and disrupt the services of the organization making them to pay heavy price. There are various ways the attackers succeed due to various vulnerabilities present in the system. IoT is convergence of sensors, devices, mobile devices, equipments, mobile/web/cloud applications and network infrastructure. This makes IoT more vulnerable to exploit the weaknesses than any other systems. The main attack vectors which could risk your system are hactivists, internal disgruntled employees, enemy state, and competitors.
How the exploitation take place?
Compromising access control
Hackers can gain access to network, devices and applications by guessing the passwords or by breaking it using brute force method. Many devices have no passwords, hard coded passwords or passwords can?t be changed are the easy target to get the control of the devices remotely and access the confidential information or even change the parameters.
Crippling the network services
Attackers can initiate distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack to flood the network and make it unserviceable for the important services and communication.
The attackers can be able to inject the malware through insecure network and components which are poorly configured or lack in basic security. Most of the time firmware of the sensors and devices is not checked and updated leading to easy access to firmware to modify the firmware completely or change the boot loader sequence.
Exploiting applications and interfaces
Mobile, web and back end interfaces are most vulnerable for attacks due to heterogeneous development standards in IoT. Large amount of data comes at risk by SQL injection attacks, cross-site scripting attacks, cross-site request forgery attacks and session control.
Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks
Many devices and systems lack the data encryption which exposes the data in transit and data at rest. The attackers can steal such data which include session identifiers, private information, authentication credentials etc. The attackers can tamper with the critical process parameters transmitted from the sensors and devices.
Improper or weak configuration of network assets like servers, switches, firewalls give easy access and control to the attackers exposing the information in entire network.
Multi tenant cloud infrastructure is serious threat if it doesn?t have proper authentication management and not properly configured. It may expose the application and data to another tenant.
Lack of adherence to regulation and compliance to standard security procedures keep the organization vulnerable to various threats emanating not only through network attacks but also to the phishing, social engineering and even physical attacks.
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